A. Mukhamadeev. Almysh’s unifying politics and Suvar’s factor
The author of the article finds out the reason for the refusal to accept Islam demonstrated by Suvar — one of the tribal groups of the Bulgar community. Having studied the sources, A. Mukhamadeev came to a conclusion about existence of the Khazaria government’s secret policy. This policy had the aim to upset plans for consolidation of the Bulgars under supervision of Almysh in the Central Volga Area. According to the author, the Baghdad embassy of 922 to the Volga Bulgaria as a result of Khazarian intervention remained without financial resources, and Suvar became the center of the separate principality and turned into the powerful competitor of the city of Bulgar.
Keywords: Volga Bulgaria, Khazaria khaganate, Bulgars, Almysh, Islam, Vyryg, Khazars, Suvars, Khazar-Suvars union, secret policy.
D. Mustafina. «The book is old, the leaves rotted in that place» (Completing the documents of the spatial organization of the Kazan District settlements in 1565-1568)
The article is devoted to the problem of reconstruction of the defective and lost places of the published document of the XVI century — it was about description and survey of lands in Kazan District made by N. Borisov-Borozdin and D. Kikin. The author compared the cadastre with register and documentary materials: rashtra diploma of the XVI century, the Charter confirmation diploma and extract from the cadastre books of the XVII century.
Keywords: cadastre, the reconstruction of lost texts, Kazan District, N. Borisov-Borozdin, D. Kikin, Archbishop Herman, Metropolitan Matthew, Metropolitan Joasaph.
I. Toropitsyn. The Astrakhan Yurtovsky nobility in the system of the feudal relations of the XVIII century
The article is devoted to the description of the Turkic service nobility of Lower Volga Region fight for improvement of the financial position in the XVIII century. Questions of personal enrichment of the Yurtovsky nobility, fight of her representatives for the landed property and people’ possessions are in the center of author’s attention. I. Tоropitsуn analyzes the typical aspects of the relations between the feudal Astrakhan Yurtovsky murzas and horse heads, the relation of the Astrakhan authorities towards feudal inquiries of the Turkic service nobility on the basis of a wide range of the sources. The considerable part of the sources is entered into scientific circulation for the first time. The author proves the conclusion about high degree of independence of various groups of nobility in Yurtovsky society’s socio-political life.
Keywords: Astrakhan yurtovsky Tatars, murzas, horse heads, emeks, Astrakhan authorities, land grounds.
R. Garipova. The Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly as a Sheriyat court
The article tells how the Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly worked as a Sheriyat court. More Muslims appealed to the Assembly as in the court of higher instance during the XIX century. The authority of akhuns who had traditionally acted as the highest-level religious authority, decreased as a result of this process.
Keywords: The Orenburg Muslim Spiritual Assembly, Sheriyat court, religious authority.
S. Shendrikova. Industrial and agricultural enterprises of the Crimea in the activities after annexation to the Russian Empire
Active agricultural and industrial development of the territory, actively developing trade appeared after the Crimea annexation to the Russian Empire in 1783. All this processes contributed to the development of cities and the growth of the urban population of the Peninsula. The culture and education rose to a higher level.
Keywords: Russia, Crimea, Sevastopol, Simferopol, Marine library, viticulture, winemaking, gardening.
I. Zagidullin. New phenomena in the cultural and social life of the Muslims at the turn of the XIX-XX centuries
The Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs has paid close attention to the issue of modernization of social and cultural life of Muslims in Russia, the Tatars new-methodic schools’ establishment, the secular works’ publications in the beginning of the XX century. The office got information about innovative processes in the regions of compact residence of the Muslims.
Keywords: jadidism, modernization, I. Gasprinsky, the Police Department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs.
O. Chikurova «Victory or Slavery» (Ya. Koblov about the Russia’s tasks in the World War I)
The article shows the little-known facts of «Kiev period» biography of the Russian teacher-educator, ethnographer Ya. Koblov. The fragments of his work «Victory or Slavery. Concerning the occurring armed fight between Russia and Germany» are given, the work which has become now the rare edition. The special attention is paid to Koblov’s understanding of national problems of Russia in the World War I. The given documents help to open the potential of the author as the person of the state thinking.
Keywords: Ya. Koblov, World War I, Kiev educational district.
L. Gabdrafikova. The Tatar women in the years of the World War I
The changes happening in private and public life of the Tatar women of different class groups in 1914-1917 are analyzed in the article. The author comes to a conclusion that the processes of emancipation of the Tatar women which began at the end of the XIX century came to the end in the years of the World War I.
Keywords: World War I, Tatar society, Tatar women, gender researches, daily occurrence history.
E. Gaynetdinova. The photo from the front
The work is devoted to the analysis of the visual sources of the period of the World War I which remained in the fund of the military and censorial commission under a Staff of the Kazan military district of the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Keywords: World War I, the military and censorial commission under a Staff of the Kazan military district, censorship, a visual source, the photo, the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan.
T. Nasyrov. October and persecutions on the Kazan Russian not-Bolshevist press
Elimination of the oppositional press became one of methods of the new power according to one-party dictatorship after October revolution. The work is devoted to the liquidated Kazan Russian not-Bolshevist press.
Keywords: October revolution, the Soviet power, the Decree about the press, the Kazan press.
D. Davydov. Fight for moral shape of komsomol members of the 1920th (On materials of political court)
The separate true-life story of one komsomol family is considered in the article on the basis of materials of political court. The author gives a conclusion that the society of the 1920th continued to come under influence of traditional mental installations despite modernization policy.
Keywords: komsomol, political court, daily occurrence history, mentality, modernization.
N. Fedorova, I. Khanipova. «The collective-farm peasantry of Tatarstan goes a right way to good life» (Documentary photographs about an agricultural exhibition in Kazan in 1933)
The complex of documentary photographs about the Kazan agricultural exhibition in 1933 dated for the Second All-Tatars Congress of collective farmers-leaders are presented and analyzed in the publication. The author shows uniqueness and originality of information concluded in the photos.
Keywords: Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, starvation in 1932-1933, collective-farm peasantry, agricultural exhibition, documentary photos.
T. Krasheninnikova. «You have to hand it to them, all of them worked diligently with accuracy natural to Germans» (Shenkhen-Tenki: the history of the German colony)
The publication is devoted to history of the German families of the village of Shenkhen of the Marksshtadsky canton of the Republic of the Germans of the Volga region, who lived in Tenki village Verkhneuslonsky (Kamsko-Ustyinsky) region of Tatar ASSR since 1933. The bodies of People’s Commissariat for Internal Affairs who worked in Tatar ASSR in 1941 fabricated case about insurgent fascist organization that worked in the Tenkovsy area. Shenkhensky Germans were the victims of the case. Rehabilitation took place in 1962.
Keywords: migration, repressions, rehabilitation, Republic of Germans of the Volga region, village of Shenkhen, village of Tenki.
A. Kostin, T. Kostina. The foreign professors of the Kazan University in the 1830-1850th
The article gives six biographic articles-references that classifying by dates continue the edition «Foreign professors of the Russian Universities (the second half of the XVIII — the first third of the XIX century). Biographic dictionary» (Moscow, 2011). The gathered together biographies of the foreign professors of the Kazan University of the 1830-1850th F. Bolenzen, I. Boltsani, O. Gotvald, A. Kazembeck, F. Fater and G. Fogel allow finding the common features distinguishing them from biographies of the colleagues of the previous period. The Professors of the 1830-1850th learned Russian, had experience of university work, and were authors of serious scientific works even before becoming the members of the Department.
Keywords: Kazan Imperial University, Ministry of National Education, biographic dictionary, biography, I. Boltsani, O. Gotvald, A. Kazembeck, F. Fater, G. Fogel.
A. Makhmutova. «The feeling was such as though boiled water scalded me» (Zukhra and Ismail Gasprinskiy)
The work is devoted to Zukhra Akchurina who became not only the beautiful wife, but also the colleague in publishing and business of female Muslim education for her spouse — the educator and the editor-publisher of the «Terdzhiman» newspaper Ismail Gasprinsky. I. Gasprinsky’s speech about position of Muslims in Russia given in 1907 on a banquet of Muslims in Cairo is also offered to the readers’ attention.
Keywords: I. Gasprinsky, Z. Akchurina, R. Fakhretdin, G. Iskhaki, Bakhchisarai, «Terdzhiman» newspaper, female Muslim education.
I. Zaytsev. New documents about Ismail Gasprinsky
The article acquaints readers with the earlier unknown documents connected with I. Gasprinsky’s activity — the letter by the Kazakh Sultan Ghazi Valya khan about the Emir of Bukhara (1893) and the congratulatory address from Muslim youth of Kazan on the occasion of the «Tеrdzhiman» newspaper anniversary (1903).
Keywords: I. Gasprinsky, Emir of Bukhara, G. Bayazitov, Kazan, «Tеrdzhiman» newspaper.
L. Aynutdinova, F. Akhmetshina. Destiny of the Tatar female in the context of time (Pages of Z. Tagirova-Salekhova’s life)
Life and destiny of one of the first Tatar teachers Z. Tagirova (Salekhova after marriage) is considered in the context of history of Tatarstan and the Tatar people. The hard destiny of the Tatar intellectuals during revolution, Civil and the Great Patriotic Wars, starvation and repressions is reflected on an example of the Tagirov-Salekhov family which made a noticeable contribution to cultural development, science and education of Tatars.
Keywords: Z. Tagirova-Salekhova, history of Tatarstan, women’s movement, female education, rights of Muslim female, role of the personality in the history, preschool education.
A. Yuzeev. Religious and philosophical views of Mardzhani
The article is devoted to the religious and philosophical opinion of Mardzhani stated in «The book about mature philosophy…». Mardzhani criticizes kalam — speculative theology because it took an important place in an education system.
Keywords: religious and philosophical views of Sh. Mardzhani, madrasah, kalam, speculative theology, Allah’s attributes.
I. Aliyev. It is never late to restore the truth (Pushkin places in Kazan)
The great Russian poet A. Pushkin visited Kazan during a trip across the Volga region and the Urals in September, 1833. Some memorable places are connected with his stay in the city; one of them is E. Pertsov’s house on Rybnoryadskaya St. (nowadays Pushkin St.). The author draws a conclusion that standard definition of the house of A. Pushkin’s stay was incorrect and also makes his own hypothesis about the correct house on the basis of archival documents.
Keywords: A. Pushkin, Kazan, E. Pertsov’s house, V. Egerev.
E. Dolgov. Visit of the Emperor Alexander III to Kazan in memoirs of his contemporaries
The publication tells about the visit of the successor of the Russian throne, future emperor Alexander III to Kazan in 1866. During this trip Crown Prince visited Molostvov’ estate in the village of Nikolsk where hunting was organized for suite and future emperor. V. Molostvov’s memoirs are offered to the readers’ attention.
Keywords: Russian Empire, Alexander III, Kazan, village of Nikolskoye, V. Molostvov, memoirs.
A. Bustanov, I. Minnullin. Visit of Mufti R. Fakhretdinov to Kazan in 1925 through the eyes of Muslim elite: Said Wahidi’s note
The published document represents a short note by S. Wakhidi about visit of the Mufti R. Fakhretdinov to Kazan in February, 1925 which remained as a part of his archive in the Center of Written and Musical Heritage of Institute of Language, Literature and Art named after G. Ibragimov of the Academy of Science of the Republic of Tatarstan. The details of visit and reception of the mufti by the Muslim intellectuals of Kazan are described in the document. In article preceding the publication the political situation before arrival of the mufti is characterized, portraits of participants of a meeting and their further destiny are restored.
Keywords: R. Fakhretdin, S. Wahidi, M. Salikhov, K. Tardzhimanov, Sh. Sharaf, M. Imankulov, Kazan, Tatar ASSR, Islam, Kazan Mukhtasibat, political repressions.
A. Khoroshkevich. Wise Apa and resolute Miriam
The publication, based on memoirs of N. Morozova’s, the daughter of the repressed journalist and the cultural figure A. Morrison about life in exile in the Tatar village in Bashkiria, contains the sincere story about hospitality of a simple Tatar family. It brightly characterizes the concept designated by the modern language as «friendship of the people».
Keywords: A. Morrison, V. Morozova, repressions, daily occurrence history, Tatars.
O. Fedotova. To the 200 anniversary since the birth of M. Lermontov
The publication is devoted to 200-year anniversary of the great Russian poet M. Lermontov. The documents on celebration of the 100 anniversary of the poet in the Kazan province were postponed in funds of the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Keywords: M. Lermontov, Kazan, the High Female Courses, G. Tukay.
A. Akhtyamova. Public work of G. Akhmarov (To the 150 anniversary since his birth)
The article is devoted to the translation direction of G. Akhmarov’s public work (1864-1911). The transliteration of the text of the political program of cadets in G. Akhmarov’s translation is presented in it.
Keywords: G. Akhmarov, Kazan province, public work, political party, political program, cadets.
G. Fayezova. From the archival past. Kormukhin Yakov Semyonovich (To the 85 anniversary of the Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documentation of the Republic of Tatarstan)
The work is devoted to Ya. Kormukhin (1895-1953) — the Manager of party archive of the Tatar regional committee of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks). The documents of autobiographical character and documents opening different aspects of Ya. Kormukhin’s activity were postponed in the Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documentation of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Keywords: Ya. Kormukhin, biography, Party Archive of the Tatar regional committee of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks), Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documentation of the Republic of Tatarstan.
A. Kabirova, L. Khuzeeva. «Tatarstan became the second homeland for us» (To the 70 anniversary of the siege full lifting of Leningrad)
The relationship of the locals and Leningrad residents evacuated in Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic during the Great Patriotic War; the close interrelations which were established between Leningrad and the Republic in various spheres of the society life are considered in the article.
Keywords: the Great Patriotic War, Siege of Leningrad, Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, evacuation.
A. Gallyamova. «For the reporting period it was necessary not only to delete separate phrases,.. but also to remove the whole works» (To the 70 anniversary of August (1944) resolution of the Central Committee of All-Union Communist Party (bolsheviks))
The author analyzes the problem of the cultural policy realization in Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the period of late Stalinism. A. Gallyamova acquaints readers with documents of Glavlit of TASSR in 1946-1948 which testify to toughening of ideological control over activity of the creative intellectuals.
Keywords: communistic ideology, Tatar intellectuals, late Stalinism, Soviet culture, ethnic question.
M. Akhmetzyanov. Unknown pages of ancient manuscripts
The ancient manuscript, in which national methods of treatment and signs are described, is presented in the article.
Keywords: M. Akhmetzyanov, national methods of treatment, signs.
R. Gallyam, T. Biktimirova. Aisha Bogdanova: «The woman of free France isthe slave direct, and figuratively…»
Authors publish one of sketches of the cycle «Sketches of Paris» in the translation into the Tatar language. It is published in 1911 on the pages of the Parisian Tyurko-Muslim emigrant newspaper «Musulmanin» under the pseudonym «Aisha-hanum». The sketch is remarkable because the social status of Parisians is compared with a social legal status of Muslim Tatars of the Volga region and Cisural area the beginning of the XX century. However, according to the author of a sketch, this comparison is not in favor of Parisians.
Keywords: «Musulmanin» newspaper, A. Bogdanova, «Sketches of Paris», gender history.
F. Islayev. «Be in each science the master, the poet…» (Pages of history of the World War I)
The article is devoted to diary entries of Kh. Gayfullin — the prisoner of the World War I, native of Staroyakhshevo Village of the Birsky district of the Ufa province.
Keywords: Kh. Gayfullin, the World War I, prisoner of war.
I. Khanipova, L. Khuzeevа. «The Literary Steps» magazine from personal fund of Sh. Khammatov
The article is devoted to the hand-written magazine «Literary Steps» appearing in Sverdlovsk Tatar-Bashkir Pedagogical Technical School in the second half of the 1930th. Educational, communicative and ideological functions of the magazine are defined, its role in preservation of the native language is shown.
Keywords: Sh. Khammatov, Sverdlovsk, hand-written magazine, education.
R. Nabiyev. The Riga documents on «zolotoordynsky» trade on Baltic
The well-known achievement of the Dzhuchid’s (Golden Horde) state was establishment of a through transcontinental trade way. At the same time northern, northwest and western trade of the Russian principalities is traditionally considered as the independent phenomenon of the Russian economic activity. However there is a number of data which can be considered as the evidence of the Muslim merchants’ participation in the Baltic trade. The author discusses two documents of the XIV century from the Latvian National Archive (Riga) that contain mentions information with Muslim names.
Keywords: trade, ratman, letter, Archive of the Riga Magistrate, Bulgars, Tatars.
Kh. Bagautdinova. Gabdulla Tukaya’s «traces» in a family tree of the Mullah Sirazhetdin
The article is devoted to the historical genealogy of S. Nazmetdinov who was the imam of the First Cathedral Mosque in Yamashurma village (now it is Bysokogorsky area of the Republic of Tatarstan). These documents make it possible to recover the unknown pages of history of the prominent Tatar poet G. Tukai’s family which was relative of the mullahs S. Nazmetdinov’s family.
Keywords: mullah, S. Nazmetdinov, G. Tukay, shedzher, history of villages of Kazan Area, genealogy.
R. Ishmukhamedova. «Аbsolutely new trends are noticed in the Tatar literature» (Process of transition to new-method school in the Saratov officials’ perception at a boundary of the XIX-XX centuries)
The article is based on the secret letter from Saratov Governor В. Meshchersky to zemsky heads in the districts of the province. The letter was about the new ideological and moral phenomena and contradictions in the Tatar society, associated with the spread of jadidism.
Keywords: В. Meshchersky, Saratov province, the Muslim population, Muslim education, Mekteb, madrassah.
R. Bekkin. «Most obediently we ask Tatars that wasn’t…» (About anonymous letters against Tatar waiters of the Petersburg restaurant «Medved» in 1906)
Two anonymous letters, which addressed to the managing director of the Petersburg restaurant «Medved» in 1906 with the requirement to dismiss Tatar waiters, are considered in the article. The author offers some of the most probable causes that induced the unknown person to their writing. Article is preceded by short digression to life of the Tatars serving as waiters in the Petersburg restaurants in the beginning of the XX century.
Keywords: St. Petersburg, «Medved» restaurant, Tatar waiters.
M. Arslanov. Tatar drama studio
The Tatar drama studio was open under the leadership of Z. Sultanov in Samara in 1919. The publication is devoted to its work, repertoire and actors.
Keywords: Tatar drama studio, K. Tinchurin, Z. Sultanov, G. Kariyev, theatrical company «G. Kariyev’s Memories».
R. Valeev. «Khamit if you keep life, surely tell about me…» (G. Sharaf)
The article is devoted to the biography of the famous representative of the Tatar intellectuals Gilmutdin Sharaf (1885-1942). The last period of life of G. Sharaf reveals in the letters by Kh. Khakimov who returned from prison in 1965.
Keywords: G. Sharaf, biography, repressions.
G. Smirnov. «The idea came to me… from newspapers about atomic bomb» (About one of the «people’s» project of nuclear weapons in 1946)
This article describes one of the so-called people’s projects of building an atomic bomb, which emerged during the Cold War. At this time, the world shuddered because of atomic bombs’ use against the civilian population. Creative enthusiasm has been obviously called due to this fact.
Keywords: «people» project, innovation and invention, the Cold War, the Soviet military industry, the atomic bomb.
E. Leontyeva. Work of health authorities for the prevention of infectious diseases in the 1950-1960-ies (Оn the materials of Southern Ural)
Medical institutions of the South Ural region continued to focus its efforts on the fight against dangerous diseases. New medical developments, which made it possible to prevent the spread of epidemics and reduce mortality, promoted this activity.
Keywords: the South Ural, health, infectious diseases, medical industry, pharmacies, health centers.
I. Nigamatzyanov. Man and Nature in east Tatarstan (the Aznakayevsky region: problems of history and culture)
The publication provides information on the First International Scientific and Practical Conference «Man and Nature in East Tatarstan. Aznakaevsky region: problems of history and culture», held on 22-23 May 2014 in the Republic of Tatarstan, Aznakayevo.
Keywords: conference, archaeological and epigraphic research, South-East of Tatarstan, Aznakayevo.
D. Usmanova. International conference «Tyurko-Muslem world: identity, heritage and prospects of studying»
The review of work of the International scientific conference devoted to two important anniversaries: to the 80 anniversary since the birth of the academician M. Usmanov (1934-2010) and to the 50 anniversary of the organization of Archeographical expeditions of the Kazan University (1963-2014) is given in the publication. More than 65 reports on a wide range of actual historical, historical and philological and the Islam-studying problems were heard and discussed during the scientific forum.
Keywords: academician M. Usmanov, Turcik studing, orientalism, east source study, Tatar archaeography, spiritual and intellectual heritage of M. Usmanov.
D. Usmanova. The International symposium devoted to the 100 anniversary from the date of Ismail Gasprinsky’s death
The work submits the review of work of the international conference which took place within «The Year of memory of Ismail Gasprinsky» in Istanbul (Turkey). Representatives of scientific community of Russia, Azerbaijan and Turkey took part in work of the symposium.
Keywords: I. Gasprinsky, Turkic unity, International conference.
R. Iskhakov. Family and patrimonial cults of the Kryashen (the XIX — the beginning of the XX century)
The ethnic elements in funeral and memorial ceremonies of the Tatar Kryashen in the XIX — the beginning of the XX century, and also the related anemic representations are shown in the article. An attempt of historical and ethnographic reconstruction of this religious and ceremonial complex is made. On various historical materials the general moments and features of cults at separate territorial groups the Kryashen are revealed, their communication with ancient Turkic and Finno-Ugric beliefs is considered.
Keywords: ethnography of Tatars, traditional religious ceremonialism of the Kryashen, anemic representations, cross-cultural interaction in Volga-Ural region.