А. Мukhamadeev. The Law of pre-Mongolian Volga Bulgaria: continuity and reception issues
The development of law in the pre-Mongolian Volga Bulgaria can be considered a unique occurrence. After the adoption of Islam the standards of traditional Old Turkic social and legal interrelations of the Volga Bulgars gave place to the legal relations based on the Muslim law — Shariah, regulating almost all aspects of the life of a Muslim. The article deals with the issues of continuity of law of the Volga Bulgars, as well as the reception of law due to the penetration of Islam to the Volga region.
Keywords: Volga Bulgaria, customary law, continuity, Islamic law, Shariah, reception.
М. Nedorezov. From the early history of Chistopol
The article analyzes the census record of Chistoye Pole village in 1719. It is one of the earliest documents on Chistopol town’s history. The author presents age-related and social characteristics of the population and reveals the reasons for the peasants’ settlement on that location.
Keywords: Chistopol, Chistoye Pole, Zyureyskaya road, Kazan County, Kazan Governorate, census record.
D. Mustafina. «It was accepted and performed by overlooker and junior office clerk Stepan Pirogovsky» (Menzelinsk title deeds of the last quarter of the XVIIIth century)
The article is dedicated to the issue of implementation of possession right towards feudally dependent people and a possessor’s effectuation of being in charge of bonded peasants in Menzelinsk town in the last quarter of the XVIIIth century. The recondite and never-before-published act notes on the alienation of bonded peasants by landlords and their wives are attached to the article.
Keywords: Menzelinsk, bills of sale, manumissions, house serfs, bonded peasants.
S. Shendrikova, P. Shautin. Emperor Alexander II and his family in the Crimea (adapted from «Russkaya Starina» journal)
During the adjustment of the Crimea to the realities of the Russian Empire the major part was played by the members of The Romanovs Russian Imperial Dynasty. Their presence on the Crimea land was frequently accompanied by new trends in the microeconomical policy of the peninsula. This particularly concerns the South Coast of the Crimea, where in the XIXth century the first imperial residences were built. The current article is restricted with the description of Emperor Alexander II’s presence in the Crimea due to the fact that just at his emperorship the peninsula became the place of regular visits of the Imperial family members. The authors of the article take stand on the materials of the contemporaries, like V. H. Kondaraki, V. Melegi, published in «Russkaya Starina» historical journal.
Keywords: Russia, Imperial family, Alexander II, Yalta, Livadia, the Crimea, infrastucture, inter-ethnic relations, foreign policy.
G. Khasanshin. «Non-Russian» school as a tool of intergration into Russian social and cultural entity for Muslim Tatars in the Volga-Ural region (the late XIXth — the early XXth centuries)
The most important task in the domestic national policy of the Russian Empire during the post-reform period was integration of the Muslim Tatar population into Russian social and cultural entity. The integration problems, including the performance of governmental «non-Russian» school, were being considered at the sessions of Special meeting on education of eastern non-Russians in 1905, the decisions of which defined the state’s educational policy in terms of Tatars in the early XXth century.
Keywords: special meetings, the Tatar school, «non-Russian» school, Jadidism.
R. Shaydullin. Charity and curatorship activities of Kazan Court of Justice (the late XIXth — the early ХХth century)
The article considers the charity and curatorship activities of Kazan Court of Justice. Prior to the First World War Kazan Court of Justice rendered targeted aid to the colleagues and their families in need, but starting with the military operation this activity showed itself more large-scale.
Keywords: Kazan Court of Justice, district court, Ministry of Justice, benevolent association, Russian Red Cross Society, curatorship.
I. Zagidullin. A new form of ethno-confessional consolidation: the conference of Muslim proxies of Ufa Governorate in 1905
The article reflects the reasons, process and decisions taken on the 22, 23 and 25 of June, 1905 in Ufa during the conference of governorate’s Muslim proxies, where the Management of Muslim affairs project, having been developed at the conference of religious leaders in Ufa in April, was adopted, as well as specific proposals on solution of local social and economic problems of the region’s Muslim population.
Keywords: the report on Ufa General Governorate conference of Muslim proxies in 1905, Mukhammadshakir Tukayev, The Muslims’ petition, Vice Governor N. E. Bogdanovich.
L. Gabdrafikova. «Various rumors make people stay home while life has been more joyous before…»: Kazan Governorate after October, 1905
Based on the archival documents (private correspondence, police reports, gendarmerie reviews, newspaper materials, autobiographies and reminiscences), the analysis of collective consciousness of Kazan governorate population in the late 1905-1906 was made. City rumors, attitude of common people to street crime and revolutionary literature and behavior of city people during public events are considered.
Keywords: Kazan Governorate, First Russian Revolution, collective consciousness, street crime, violence.
D. Davidov. «They wanted to overthrow the Tsarist regime…»: historical report as a form of ideological activity among youth
The article presents the material of the report on the subject of «The Decembrist revolt», made in Komsomol unit of Molkeevo village of Sviyazhskiy Kanton of TASSR in December, 1925. It is concluded that under the conditions when history was taken out of courses of study, contortion of facts was becoming part and parcel of ideological struggle with peasants.
Keywords: the Decembrists, peasantry, youth, collective consciousness.
А. Fedotova. «We failed with migration terribly» (Evacuation as a kind of aid to the starving people of TASSR in 1921-1923s)
The article is dedicated to the evacuation as a kind of aid to the starving people of TASSR in 1921-1923s. Based on the unpublished archival documents, evacuation and reevacuation processes for adult and infant population of the Tatar Republic can be traced. Despite the vast migration geography directions of the starving, the conclusion on the low efficiency of the evacuation as a kind of aid to population is drawn.
Keywords: famine in 1921-1923s, TASSR, famine in the Volga Region, evacuation of the starving people, aid to the starving people.
L. Spiridonova. «Cultural life is decentralized to a great extent…» (Cultural life peculiarities in the Middle Volga region in 1920s)
The article considers the trends and peculiarities of cultural life development in the Middle Volga region in 1920s. Analyzing the archival documents and the region’s printed media, the author comes to the conclusion that the social and cultural processes are a reflection of unique and various streams and occurrences during formation and popularization of common art.
Keywords: cultural life activation, cultural policy, repertoire review, new art popularization.
S. Fayzullin. On principal stages of transformations of TASSR administrative and territorial structure in 1920-1930s.
Based on the archival documents, the article analyzes the principal stages of changes in the administrative and territorial structure of Tatar ASSR in 1920-1930s.
Keywords: Tatar Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, decree, volost, сanton, district.
О. Kozlova, А. Sychenkova. «In terms of Soviet localization policy for higher educational institutions a significant step is taken»: Soviet localization policy in TASSR higher educational institutions during the first five-year industrial plans
As exemplified by TASSR, the article illustrates the theoretical and practical aspects of Sovyet localization policy in 1930s as a part of «national policy» of the Bolsheviks. The reasons for its expansion to the higher education sector are considered. The specific feature of Sovyet localization policy in the Republic’s higher educational institutions, dynamics of number of Tatar students, as well as students being ethnic minorities are revealed. The author’s viewpoint on the reasons for Sovyet localization policy’s closing up at the end of the mentioned period is stated.
Keywords: «national policy», Sovyet localization policy, higher education, national language, students, ethnic minorities.
Е. Bureeva, G. Latipova. «These are the Germans who lived and were brought up in Soviet Union…» (Labor-mobilized Germans at the construction of Sviyazhsk-Ulyanovsk railroad in 1942)
Based on the documents of The Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documentation of the Republic of Tatarstan, the article analyzes the labor forces of Volzhlag GULZhDS NKVD, used at the construction of Sviyazhsk-Ulyanovsk railroad. The main workforce was the mobilized Germans being different in their social background, age and political convictions.
Keywords: The Great Patriotic War, Volzhlag, Sviyazhsk-Ulyanovsk railroad, labour-mobilized Germans.
R. Sadikova. «To strengthen and develop love to native shore in children» (Beginning of child tourism in TASSR)
In December, 1940 the Decree «Child tourism» was issued by RSFSR People’s Commissar of Education. Native shore study movement gained breadth. The selection of documents from the fund of VLKSM Tatar Regional committee of The Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documentation of the Republic of Tatarstan gives some idea of forms and scales of this work.
Keywords: Republican infant excursion and touristic station, tourism, child tourism, marches, area study, pioneers, schoolchildren.
L. Donina. Onstage dress in «Hodja Nasreddin» comedy by N. S. Isanbet on the stage of the Tatar theatre
The retrospective of stagings of musical comedy «Hodja Nasreddin» by N. S. Isanbet on the stage of G. Kamal Tatar Academic Theatre is represented in the article. The main interpretations of Tatar folk costume are determined, the comparative analysis of theatrical costumes with their ethnographic models in the light of significant structures and stable traces of Tatar folk costume is performed.
Keywords: N. S. Isanbet, «Hodja Nasreddin», theatrical costume, G. Kamal Tatar Academic Theatre.
S. Nikonova. Peculiarities of state and confessional relations in the late Soviet period: the regional aspect
Modalities of the state policy in the field of religion in 1965-1985s are reflected in the article. The author considers the «softening» of the relations between the government and church as an expression of a special kind of contractual commitments concerning only governmental structures and church hierarches, specifies the complex situation of the faithful in the country, and sums up that the growth of interest towards religion is mainly bound with the changes in the spiritual life of the society but not with the church’s efforts.
Keywords: state and confessional relations, ideological control, multiconfessional region, the late Soviet period.
Е. Mironova. The Gortalovs: the noble family history
The article considers the history of the Gortalovs noble family who lived in Kazan governorate from the early XIXth century. Everyday routine of some members of the dynasty is shown. The article is illustrated with the photographs from the personal archive of the Gortalovs descendants.
Keywords: the Gortalovs, L. N. Tolstoy, Kazan Governorate, Kazan.
S. Khamidullin. «Gendarme of a quite peaceful kind» (From the life of the first chief of G. S. Larionov Kazan Governorate Gendarme Administration)
This is the article based on the archival documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan on the life and activities of the first chief of G. S. Larionov Kazan Governorate Gendarme Administration (1805-1870).
Keywords: G. S. Larionov, Kazan Governorate Gendarme Administration, gendarmerie, Kazan Governorate.
L. Bushueva, Ch. Minnemullina. «Pagans are in need of care…»: reporting documentation of Ufa Governor I. F. Shcherbatskiy as a source of the national policy history in the Volga-Ural region in the post-reform period
The article reviews the reporting documentation of Ufa Governorate Governor I. F. Shcherbatskiy as a tool of Russiafication policy in regard to the pagan population of the Volga-Ural region.
Keywords: I. F. Shcherbatskiy, N. I. Ilminskiy, Governor, governor report, national policy, the Russian Empire.
S. Yezhova. «Heirs of the commerce of counselor I. V. Alexandrov» (Industrial and commercial activities in Kazan)
The article investigates the industrial and commercial and charity activities of the members of Vyatskiy merchant family in the late XIXth — the early XXth centuries in Kazan. Their participation in the social life of the city is covered, the role of P. I. Alexandrov in various public projects in the field of public education is shown.
Keywords: merchants, the Alexandrovs, P. I. Alexandrov, industrial and commercial enterprises, charity, Kazan.
L. Huzeeva. Turning the leaves of life of the writer Kavi Nadzhmi
The article is about the life journey of the famous Tatar writer, poet and translator Kavi Nadzhmi (1901-1957). The documents of The Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documentation of the Republic of Tatarstan reflect not only the biography and oeuvre of the writer, but the tragic time he had to live as well.
Keywords: Kavi Nadzhmi, writer, The Central State Archive of Historical and Political Documentation of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Е. Dolgov. «You are a most favorable, oh, Kazan!»: Emperor Paul I and Kazan governorate authorities in the reminiscences and diaries of contemporaries
The article is dedicated to the domestic policy issues of the Russian government in the late XVIIIth century, concerning the transformations in the field of Governorate administration, which appeared as a result of Emperor Paul I’s visit to Kazan in 1798.
Keywords: Paul I, the Russian Empire, Kazan, Kazan Governorate, Kazan governors.
R. Valeev, D. Martinov, Yu. Martinova, V. Tuguzhekova, М. Mineeva. The Dungan Revolt in the Uigurs song folklore (Based on the scientific journey diary of N. F. Katanova in 1890)
The article contains extracts from the notes of a journey of N. F. Katanov he was keeping during the journey across Semirechye and Xinjiang in summer of 1890. The folk materials of the Kazakhs and Uigurs, dedicated to the Dungan revolt of the 1870s and having an extrinsic value for the study of the locals’ perception of Turkestan’s conquest by China, are published. Songs were the most important communication means under the conditions of lack of mass media and mass illiteracy of the population.
Keywords: N. F. Katanov, ethnography, folkloristics, Xinjiang, Semirechye, the Dungan revolt, The Xin Empire, Turkish studies.
E. Salakhova. «The pen says, A little more to write, let the soldier’s anxiety be taken away» (Letters from the First World War period)
The First World War left an indelible imprint in the history of the Tatar people. One of the sources for the war history study is soldiers’ letters. They disclose the perception of the war by the Tatar people, describe their rueful feelings, affording ground for seeing the realities of war through the eyes of common people. The article presents letters from the period of the First World War, written in Tatar by the Arabic script.
Keywords: the First World War, the Imperialistic War, soldier letters, Tatar people history, Tatar historical sources.
А. Hayretdinov. Musa Bigeyev’s hadj narration
The article presents the abridgement from the travel essays of the eminent Tatar theologian, religious thinker and public figure М. Bigeyev, dedicated to the hadj he performed in 1927. The essential historical and cultural document was preserved in the sholar’s diaries. The material translated to the modern Tatar language is introduced into scientific use for the first time.
Keywords: Musa Dzharullah, Musa Bigeyev, hadj, hadj genre, Islam in USSR, Saudi Arabia.
О. Panteleeva. Cinema posters in the early ХХth century
A cinema poster is the most important visual type of a historical source which enables tracing the stages of cinematography development in Russia and demonstrates the evolution of billboards in an urban environment. About 500 cinema posters from Kazan cinemas of the early ХХth century are being kept in the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan. They all were printed in Kazan Governorate Administration’s printing office. The cinema posters from «Passaj», «Olimp» and «Luch» cinemas are attached to the article.
Keywords: cinema posters, cinematography, cinemas, Kazan, the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan.
L. Nazmetdinova. For the 90th anniversary of State Archive of Publications of the Republic of Tatarstan
The article is dedicated to the history of foundation of State Archive of Publications of the Republic of Tatarstan. Archive performs formation, state record-keeping, bibliographical and statistical registration, permanent storage and use of the national library and information collection of documents of the Republic of Tatarstan.
Keywords: State Archive of Publications of the Republic of Tatarstan, bibliography, «Chronicle of publications of the Republic of Tatarstan», Central Institute of Bibliography, book collection.
N. Aleskerova. Mystic cognition concept in Risala «Maqamat» by the medieval Shirvan sufi Sayid Yahya Bakuvi and some information about Sufism in the Volga region and the Ural
The article reveals some issues of the creed of the medieval Sufi order Halvatiya. The order’s creed was described in the theological research didactic epistles of the leader of Halvatiya Sayid Yahya Bakuvi. Besides, brief information on Sufism in Volga region and the Urals is provided.
Keywords: Tasavvuf, ishan, Ahmad al-Yasavi Sayid Yahya Bakuvi, ad-Darbandi, Rayhan al-Haka’ik, shariah, tariqat, haqiqat, ma’rifat, sayr-i ilallah, sayr-i fillah, sayr-i billah, sayran Allah billah, Naqshbandi.
L. Mortazina, R. Adgamov. «Risala-yi Tauhide» by Bakhtiyar el-Memdeli
The article is dedicated to the analysis of the scientific work «Risala-yi Tauhide» (Treatise on Tawhid) by Bakhtiyar el-Memdeli (1828-1890). It considers the views of the scholar to the one of the most important articles of faith of Islam — Tawhid (Oneness of God). The authors analyze the classification of «Tawhid» by Bakhtiyar el-Memdeli, comparing it with the ideas of the prominent scholar G. Utyz-Imyani upon this problem. The article is attached with an extract from the scientific work with transliteration to the Cyrillic alphabet.
Keywords: Tatar pedagogical thought, imam, mosque, madrasah, faith, Treatise on Tawhid, aqidah, G. Utyz-Imyani, Bakhtiyar el-Memdeli.
L. Usmanova. «Milli Bayrak» newspaper — «Tatar emigration encyclopaedia»
The article presents the history of creation, keeping and studying of the unique periodical in Tatar written with the Arabic script — «Milli Bayrak» newspaper, published in 1935-1945s in Mukden (Manchuria). «Milli Bayrak» is a unique information source on the life and occupation of the Turkic Tatar emigrants lived in the North Eastern Asia region during the 30-40s of the ХХth century.
Keywords: «Milli Bayrak» newspaper, Russian emigration, Turkic-speaking emigration, Diaspora, the Far East.
E. Dolgov. Alafuzov’s company (the latter half of the XIXth — early XXth centuries): industrial history of Russia
The article analyzes the multi-authored monograph of the scholars of Sh. Mardzhani Institute of History under the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan «Alafuzov’s company (the latter half of the XIXth — early XXth centuries): industrial history of Russia» (Kazan, 2015). The book investigates the occupation of the Alafuzovs merchant dynasty in Russia, the establishment and functioning of industrial and commercial company «Alafuzov’s factories and plants» in the latter half of the XIXth — early XXth centuries.
Keywords: the Alafuzovs, «Alafuzov’s factories and plants», Kazan, review.
I. Khanipova. The administrative and territorial structure of Tatar ASSR in 1920-1930s
The article analyzes the monograph of Candidate of Historical Sciences S. A. Fayzullin «The administrative and territorial structure of Tatar ASSR in 1920-1930s: its formation and development» (Kazan, 2015), dedicated to the formation of borders and administrative and territorial transformations in TASSR in 1920-1930s.
Keywords: Тatar ASSR, administrative and territorial structure, autonomy, borders, canton, review.
R. Pochekayev. Mukhamedsharif Aitov as a researcher of the statehood and the law of nations and states of the Central Asia
The article is dedicated to the analysis of the material of the Russian official of the Tatar origin M. Aitov on the statehood and the laws of nations and states of the Central Asia, namely the Hivin Khanate and Kazakhstan. The author describes the circumstances under which M. Aitov was obtaining the related material, evaluates its significance for the formation of ideas on the statehood and the laws of states and nations of the region.
Keywords: Mukhamedsharif Aitov, Tatar officials in Russian service, Orenburg region, the Russian Empire, the Hivin Khanate, Kazakhstan in the XIX century, statehood in the Central Asia, traditional law, Muslim law.
R. Aynutdinov, T. Chudinova. The history of implementation of Kazan Mother of God Monastery project in Kazan
The article considers the architectural design of the Convent of Kazan Icon of the Mother of God complex by Imperial consolidation in the early ХIXth century. The authors have reconstructed the history of realization of this large-scale historical and architectural monument, the author of which was a Kazan architect Ya. M. Shelkovnikov.
Keywords: the Convent of Kazan Mother of God, Church of St. Nicholas Tulskiy, Church of St. Sofia in Kazan, the Kazan Icon of the Mother of God, architect Ya. M. Shelkovnikov, architect I. E. Starov.
N. Khamitbayeva, H. Bagautdinova. Number of inhabitants and population employment in Arsk town in the late XIXth — early ХХth centuries
Based on the materials of «The first general census of population in the Russian Empire» (1897), the article considers the ethnic composition, population, occupation and estates composition of the inhabitants of Arsk town in the late XIX century. The documents of the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan enable analyzing the business and industrial activity in Arsk in the late XIXth — the early ХХth centuries.
Keywords: Arsk, population employment, number of inhabitants, ethnic and estates composition, the late XIXth — the early ХХth centuries.
Ch. Samatova, R. Ibragimov. The establishment and development of the zemsky medicine in Laishevskiy county of Kazan Governorate in the latter half of the XIXth — the early XXth centuries
The article considers the main development stages of the zemsky medicine in Laishevskiy county of Kazan Governorate in the latter half of the XIXth — the early XXth centuries. Special attention is paid to the functioning of zemstvo’s health care centres, their financing and establishment of ambulance medicine. The role of zemstvo self-governing authorities in Laishevskiy county is shown as well.
Keywords: zemsky medicine, Laishevskiy county, Kazan Governorate, health care.
А. Akhtyamova. The regulation of social and labor relations in Kazan Typography of Karimov brothers in the early ХХth century
The article touches upon the problems of state regulation in the field of labor relations in the late XIXth — the early XXth centuries. The staff regulations of Kazan Typography of Karimov brothers are analyzed. The text of staff regulations of Kazan Typography of Karimov brothers in 1910 from the funds of the National Archive of the Republic of Tatarstan is published in the attachment to the article.
Keywords: factory legislation of the Russian Empire, social and labor relations, Typography of Karimov brothers, staff regulations, Kazan general typography sick-fund.
B. Khamidullin, I. Gerasimov, S. Belov. From the history of chess lovers in Kazan
The article is dedicated to the history of creation and activity of the Chess lovers association in the late XIXth — the early ХХth centuries. The organizational issues and various fields of association’s work, the founders’ and managers’ personalities are considered.
Keywords: chess, chess movement, non-governmental organizations, chess club, Kazan Governorate, M. I. Chigorin, A. A. Alekhin.
V. Ananyev. The preservation of Muslim monuments (academician V. V. Bartold and The Institute of Art History in 1917)
The article presents the analysis of the report «On protection of non-christian religious antiquities» by academician V. V. Bartold, made in spring of 1917 as part of work of Special committee on museums and monuments’ preservation under the Institute of Art History (Petrograd). The article is written based on the archival material of the Central State Archive of Literature and Art of St. Petersburg.
Keywords: V. V. Bartold, monument, The Institute of Art History.
L. Mukhamadeeva. Publishing activities of the Kryashens (1920-1930)
The article considers the publishing activities of the Kryashens in 1920-1930s. The Kryashens’ print media themes of that period were in a general trend of Tatar books, promulgating the Soviet regime policy and the idea of the Kryashens rapprochement with the Tatars. Due to the adoption of the new alphabet in 1928-1930s the Kryashen literature was published based on the Latin script. Tsentrkryashizdat was the state body providing the Kryashen population with print media not only in the Tatar Republic, but also outside.
Keywords: the Tatar Republic, the Kryashens, Gosizdat, Tsentrkyashizdat, the Latin script, book-printing, propaganda.
Z. Tyamayeva. International conference «Cultural, economical and technological contacts and cooperation of Japan and Tatar world: history and modernity»
The article reviews the international conference «Cultural, economical and technological contacts and cooperation of Japan and Tatar world: history and modernity» which took place on August 6, 2016 in Kazan.
Keywords: international conference, Sh. Mardzhani Institute of History under the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan, Shimane University, Japan, Northeast Asia.
Z. Tyamayeva. «Islam in the Crimea: studying and preserving of cultural monuments»
The article reviews the round-table conference «Islam in the Crimea: studying and preserving of cultural monuments» which took place on September 29, 2016 in Stariy Krim. The event was devoted to the history of studying and preserving of historical and cultural monuments of Crimean Tatars and Islam in the Crimea.
Keywords: Crimean Tatars, the Crimea, Bakhchisarai, Sh.Mardzhani Institute of History under the Academy of Sciences of the Republic of Tatarstan.